Hydromorphous Transformation of Mire and Forest Eco-tones of Ancient Ravines in Ob-Tom Interfluve
Mires are unique natural territorial complex that are widespread around the world and in particular in Western Siberia. Mires have a negative impact on land cover of neighboring territory reflected in the rise in groundwater levels and frequently the development process of waterlogging. A certain amount of information at field of investigation of the state, properties and dynamics of the individual components of mires and forest mire ecotones, landscape structure of wetlands and adjacent forests were got by now. Some studies devoted to identifying patterns of development mire creation process from the geomorphological features of the territory. Studies have private character, and the problem of the transformation of hydromorphic geosystems is best studied for the European part of Russia and the question of assessment of the state and dynamics of forest and mire ecotones geosystems of taiga zone of the West Siberian is still poorly understood. The article presents the results of the study of hydromorphic transformation of geosystems in the zone of influence of mire within the ancient ravines Ob-Tom interfluve. Based on analysis of data of field landscape studies, tachymetry of mire and the neighboring bog forest in boundaries of forest mire ecotones were identified three model site with areas of potential waterlogging depending on the degree hydromorphic transformation of geosystems. The regularities of the changes of the soil and vegetation properties from the level of groundwater and surface slope are found. The zone of intensive bogging length of 10 m, corresponding to the lower part of the slope surface of the mane with a slope of about 3 %, is characterized by a high water table (0,2 m below the surface) and the beginning of peat formation process (the thickness of the peat layer is 15 m). The interaction zone of a length of 20 m corresponds to the slope of the mane from the surface gradient of about 5–6 %. Within the zone, there is decrease of the groundwater level away from the mire to forest from 0,8 to 1,15 m. The neutral zone corresponds to the upper lined part of the mane with a low water table (over 2,5 m) and a slope surface of 1,5 %. The data obtained can be used to construct maps of a potential waterlogging based on data extrapolation to large areas, subject to the uniformity of climatic, lithological and geomorphological conditions, landscape structure and mire sizes.