General Analysis and Ethnosocial Economic Problems Tofalars
Tofalars are currently one of the small indigenous peoples of Russia. They are one of the oldest tyurkoya-Sayan-speaking peoples of old, engaged in hunting and reindeer herding. By the end of 20-ies of the century, they still roamed the Sayan mountain taiga. In the course of its historical development Tofalars created a unique material and spiritual culture, reflect well on their business activities and to enable them to adapt to the most severe taiga nomadic life. A comprehensive study of the characteristics of their economy, material and spiritual culture, their experience, their contribution to the world civilization has a great scientific and practical importance. Their experience of managing a limited area for many centuries without disturbing the ecological balance of nature deserves, especially nowadays, attention and learning. Tofalars as an ethnic group are in a critical phase of ethnic development. The small size, the loss of many elements of traditional culture, intermarriage population growth create the preconditions for the further erosion of the ethnic group, the acceleration assimilative processes. At the same time stabilizing factors are compact ethnic group living, high focus on traditional work, a certain level of ethnic identity. The article analyzes the problems of ethno-social Tofalars ranging from 90 – ies. and up to date. The basis of the traditional economy of hunting Tofalars combined with reindeer. The main objects of fishing – squirrel, sable, otter and other fur-bearing animals, and ungulates – elk, deer, roe deer. Not studied in the ethnographic aspect of their economy, life and culture in the Soviet period, as well as in our days. It is very important in the scientific and practical relations to carry out such a study, yet not completely disappeared Tofalars original culture to be able to identify its stable traditional features, to establish that the same of the traditional way of life is preserved and is now helping ethnos survive.
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