ISSN 2073-3402 (Print)

List of issues > Series «Earth Sciences». 2018. Vol. 26

Features of Structure and Gardening of Settlements

O. E. Sokolova, O. A. Barkhatova, A. A. Makarov, E. V. Potapova

The importance and structural problems of settlements – the large cities, megalopolises and small villages, kishlaks, uluses, villages possess the enormous social component defining life and development of humanity of Earth. Of course, problems of the cities and the processes connected with an urbanization stand now more sharply because of globalization of these processes and an intensification of other problems connected with large settlements by them. Programs of the UN-Habitat and WHO «Healthy cities» set many tasks the solution of which requires combination of efforts for safe sustainable development of settlements. Authors, on the basis of many years' experience of field studying, the system analysis, have offered the modern classification consisting of 4 categories and 30 types of the planted trees and shrubs territories. Several main assumptions – 11 axioms of current state of the settlements characterizing regularities of distribution of their basic structural elements are revealed. The generalized inductive analysis of a state and placement of subjects to gardening and plantings in territories of settlements, mainly Russia, leads to 10 provisions on the structure, structure and problem points characteristic of the majority of settlements. The main conclusion should be considered that, with rare exception, a problem of placement, creations and the maintenance of subjects to gardening practically in any settlement it is possible to stabilize, improve and to solve systematically. Problems of functional zoning, placement of structural elements, conditions of the planted trees and shrubs territories at evidence-based approach for safe sustainable development it is possible to solve systematically.

About the Authors

Sokolova Oksana Evgenyevna, Postgraduate, Department of Hydrology and Environmental Management, Irkutsk State University, 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952)52-10-72, e-mail: sokolovvana@mail.ru 

Barkhatova Oksana Anatolyevna, Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Associate Professor, Department of Hydrology and Environmental Management, Irkutsk State University, 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952)52-10-90, e-mail: barhat@geogr.isu.ru 

Makarov Alexey Aleksandrovich, Associate Professor of Department of Geography, Cartography and Geo-System Technology, Irkutsk State University, 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952) 52-10-86, e-mail: mak@geogr.isu.ru 

Potapova Elena Vladimirovna, Doctor of Sciences (Agricultural), Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Associate Professor, Department of Hydrology and Environmental Management, Irkutsk State University, 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952) 52-10-72, e-mail: e.v.potapova.isu@mail.ru

For citation

Sokolova O.E., Barkhatova O.A., Makarov A.A., Potapova E.V. Features of Structure and Gardening of Settlements. The Bulletin of Irkutsk State University. Series Earth Sciences, 2018, vol. 26, pp. 99-113. https://doi.org/10.26516/2073-3402.2018.26.99 (in Russian)

features of structure, functional zoning, the planted trees and shrubs territories, problems, settlements

Avdeeva E.V. Rost i indikatornaya rol' drevesnyh rastenij v urbanizirovannoj srede: monografiya [Growth and indicator role of wood plants in the urbanized environment: monograph]. Krasnoyarsk, SibGTU Publ., 2007, 382 p. (in Russian)

Global'nyj ehkologicheskij otchyot 2012 goda: Pristal'nyj vzglyad na zelenye nasazhdeniya v gorodah mira [Global ecological report of 2012: A stare on green plantings in the cities of the world]. Available at: http://www.zdolbunivcity.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/.pdf (date of access: 20.03.2018) (in Russian)

Kochurov B.I. Kniga o gorodskom kul'turnom landshafte [The book about a city cultural landscape]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta [The Bulletin of the Moscow University. Geography], 2012, vol. 5, pp. 86. (in Russian)

Kudinova G.EH., Simonov YU.V., Rozenberg A.G., Zibarev A.G. Formirovanie mirovozzrencheskih pozicij, vliyayushchih na ehkologicheskoe soznanie [Formation of the world outlooks influencing ecological consciousness]. Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo centra Rossijskoj akademii nauk [News of the Samara scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Biology, geography], 2017, vol. 5, pp. 172-177. (in Russian)

Mordkovich V.G. Sopryazhennost' ehkologicheskih sukcessij s katennoj organizaciej prostranstva. Journal obshchej biologii, 2017, no. 2, pp. 32-46. (in Russian)

Potapova E.V. Frejm-scenarij kak metod izucheniya ozelenyonnyh territorij poselenij [A frame scenario as a method of studying of the planted trees and shrubs territories of settlements]. Vestnik BGSKHA im V.R. Filippova [The BGSHA Bulletin him V.R. Filippova], 2016, no. 4, pp. 89-94. (in Russian)

Ruseckaya G. D. Osobo ohranyaemye prirodnye territorii – instrument ustojchivogo upravleniya prirodopol'zovaniem [Especially protected natural territories – the instrument of steady management of environmental management]. Izvestiya Bajkal'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [News of the Baikal state university], 2017, no. 4, pp. 478-487. https://doi.org/10.17150/2500-2759.2017.27(4).478-487 (in Russian)

Architecture 2030. Available at: http://www.architecture2030.situation/.html. (date of access: 10.06.2018). 

Big Ideas to Achieve Sustainable Cities and Communities, 2006. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/immersive-story/2018/01/31/3-big-ideas-to-achieve-sustainable-cities-and-communities (date of access: 10.06.2018)

Cardinale B.J. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature, 2012, no. 486, pp. 59-67.

Gamfeldt L. et al. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species. Nature Communications, 2013. Available at: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms2328 (date of access: 05.03.2018).

Kiebacher T., Scheidegger C., Bergamini A. Solitary trees increase the diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in pastures. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2017, vol. 239, pp. 293-303.

Lindgren A.R., Buckley B.A., Eppley S.M., Reysenbach A.L., Stedman K.M., Wagner J.T. Life on the edge – the biology of organisms inhabiting extreme environments: an in troduction to the symposium. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 2016, vol. 4, pp. 493-499.

Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. Available at:
http://www.teebweb.org/publication/mainstreaming-the-economics-of-nature-a-synthesis-of-the-approach-conclusions-and-recommendations-of-teeb/ (date of access:  10.06.2018).

Padayachee A.L., Procheş Ş., Faulkner K.T., Wilson J.R.U., Irlich U.M., Gaertner M. How do invasive species travel to and through urban environments. Biological invasions, 2017, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3557-3570

Balvanera P., Pfisterer A.B., Buchmann N., He Jing-Shen, Nakashizuka T., Raffaelli D., Schmid B. Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters, 2006, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1146-1156.

Zaremba M., Halal F., Pedrocca P., Hirose T. Satellite guided navigation control for environment monitoring. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2015, no. 24, pp. 129-144

Tilman D. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 2014, vol. 45, pp. 471-493.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol. Available at: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php (date of access: 10.06.2018).

WHO Documentation Centre. Available at: http://whodc.mednet.ru (date of access: 07.05.2017).

Full text (russian)