Natural and Climatic Factors of Ecological Safety
in the Context of Socio-Economic Development of the Baikal Region
The article considers the natural and climatic conditions of population living in the Baikal region. Most of the population of all subjects – the Irkutsk oblast, Republic of Buryatia and Zabaykalsky krai live in the southern part of the region in conditions of moderate climatic discomfort. The territorial features of the differentiation of the atmosphere's ability to self-purification (from extremely low to moderately high) are shown, depending on the combination of recurrence of calm, weak wind speeds and precipitation amounts. It has been established that the most thermally favorable territories of river valleys and intermountain depressions are characterized by an increased level of its pollution. The main air pollutants are motor transport and industrial enterprises. A significant proportion of the total amount of pollutant emissions from stationary sources belongs to the enterprises producing and distributing electricity, gas and water. Their contribution fluctuates in recent years in the range of 46–54 % in the Irkutsk oblast, 64–74 % in the Republic of Buryatia and 55–60 % in the Zabaykalsky krai. The level of exposure to pollutants is determined by the quantity and quality of fuel consumed, the bulk of which is brown coal in all subjects. The combination of impressive emissions and low and extremely low atmospheric capacity for self-purification contribute to the formation of high and very high atmospheric pollution indices (IZA), which is one of the main factors in increasing the morbidity and mortality of the population. Growth (1,3 times) of morbidity of the population of the region by malignant neoplasms is revealed. The cumulative negative impact of natural and anthropogenically caused discomfort is clearly reflected in the spatial distribution of the incidence of the population with malignant neoplasms. Its gradient in the subjects is directed from moderate discomfort towards an increase in the severity of the climate, and in the conditions of the same discomfort – from the municipal areas to the more polluted urban areas. A cost estimate of the risk of premature mortality of the able-bodied population was carried out. Economic damage in this case in 2016 for the Irkutsk oblast 4,7 % of GRP, 8,6 for the Republic of Buryatia and 7,5 % and for the Zabaykalsky krai. The issue of the environmental component of the cost of electricity and heat in the region was discussed. It is shown that the economic potential of renewable energy sources is more than 70 % of the volume of consumed coal at power stations and boiler houses of the entities, which provides real opportunities for the development of alternative energy with a reduction in the level of atmospheric pollution.
Korytny Leonid Markusovich, Doctor of Sciences (Geography), Professor, Head Researcher, V. B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, 1, Ulan-Batorskaya st., Irkutsk, 664033, Russian Federation; Irkutsk Scientific Center SB RAS, 134, Lermontov st., Irkutsk, 664033, Russian Federation; Irkutsk State University, 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952)42-64-60, e-mail: email@example.com
Bashalkhanova Ludmila Bazarsadaevna, Candidate of Sciences (Geography), Senior Researcher, V. B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, 1, Ulan-Batorskaya st., Irkutsk, 664033, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952) 42-82-75, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Veselova Viktoria Nikolaevna, Candidate of Sciences (Geography), Senior Researcher, V. B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, 1, Ulan-Batorskaya st., Irkutsk, 664033, Russian Federation; Irkutsk Scientific Center SB RAS, 134, Lermontov st., Irkutsk, 664033, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952)42-75-01, e-mail: email@example.com
Balzhinov Arkady Valerievich, Candidate of Sciences (Economic), Associate Professor, East-Siberian University of Technology and Management, 40B, Klyuchevskaya st., Ulan-Ude, 670013, Russian Federation, tel.: (3012)21-27-42, e-mail: а_bal@mail.ru
Mikheeva Elena Vladimirovna, Candidate of Sciences (Economic), Associate Professor, East-Siberian University of Technology and Management, 40B, Klyuchevskaya st., Ulan-Ude, 670013, Russian Federation, tel.: (3012)21-27-42, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bashalkhanov Innokenty Alexandrovich, Candidate of Sciences (Geography), NPF «Regional Environmental Forecasting», 44, Marat st., Irkutsk, 664025, Russian Federation, tel.: (3952)33-53-26, e-mail: email@example.com
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